Microbiology did not have it’s own curriculum until 31.12.1947 it was taught as part of pathology. It became a separate subject in 1948 and training was started by Endre Jeney professor of public health followed by Lorand Kesztyus professor professor of pathophysiology. The courses were continued by Endre Jeney again in 1951 in the new building of Department of Pathophysiology and Microbiology.

The Department of Microbiology became completely independent on the 1st of January 1948 when Lajos Vaczi was assigned to leading professor and director of the institute.

In the first time the effect of vaccination against poliomyelitis developed by Sabin was investigated followed by research of interferon, screening of antiviral agents and examination herpes viruses. An important field of virological researches is the active ingredient research. The institute contributed to the development of ingredient of the Hungarian herpes simplex vaccine. A prioritized research field of the Unit of Bacteriology was the examination of antibiotic resistance of pathogens and the role of bacterial lipids in the resistance. Meanwhile the research topics were extended by the causal factors of leukemias. Beside viral oncogenes the role of cellular oncogenes and tumorsuppressor genes is being investigated. The main field of the virological researches today is the investigation of the inductive effect of human papilloma viruses in tumor and the etiopathogenesis of illnesses caused by human retroviruses. Within that intensive researches are carried out on the role of double infections in activating of human retroviruses and vertical transmission of them. A new research field is the epidemilogic research of Human Herpesvirus 8